In the early days of the U.S. Forest Service, pack animals carried critical supplies and equipment to crews fighting forest fires. In 1929, a severe fire season exhausted the supply of trained mules and skilled packers. Forced to use unbroken…

While prairie homesteads dominate the popular imagination, agricultural land in Montana’s western forests also attracted settlers. The Forest Homestead Act, passed in June 1906, opened land within the national forests. Three months later, a…