Few Montana places encompass as much varied history as Judith Landing. For millennia, Native peoples used this wide landing spot as a seasonal campground and burial site. Captains Meriwether Lewis and William Clark camped nearby in May 1805, naming…

Designated a National Historic Landmark in 1965 and a National Monument in 2001, Pompeys Pillar is nationally significant for the hundreds of historical markings, pictographs, petroglyphs, and inscriptions on its walls. These include the signature…

Communal bison hunting required tremendous sophistication and a deep understanding of bison behavior and Northern Plains topography. Although sites varied considerably, the ideal location for a large-scale hunt had water and good grazing nearby to…

A National Historic Landmark since 1964, Pictograph Cave provides an important window into the lives of Montana’s early hunter-gatherers. It is equally significant to the history of Treasure State archaeology. People used Pictograph Cave—and the…

Travelers’ Rest is the only site where physical evidence documents the exact location of a campsite associated with the 1804-1806 Lewis and Clark Expedition. Situated at the eastern end of the Lolo Trail, Travelers’ Rest was used by Native peoples,…

Before the 1800s, most peoples living in what is now Montana patterned life according to “seasonal rounds,” moving camp along well-established routes to follow buffalo or harvest roots and berries. The Hagen Site documents a different story—the…

Petroglyphs and pictographs cover the sandstone cliffs of Deer Medicine Rocks, some of which may date to two thousand years ago. People, animals, designs, and inanimate objects cover all sides of the monolith. They include shield-bearing warriors…

Located along major intertribal trade and travel routes, the Missouri River headwaters was a confluence of people as well as rivers. Faded pictographs testify to long usage by Plains and Intermontane tribes, including the Shoshones, who regularly…

Traveling through southeastern Montana in 1883, naturalist, writer, and future United States President Theodore Roosevelt was struck by what he called the Medicine Buttes. He wrote, “Altogether it was as fantastically beautiful a place as I have…

Immense herds of bison once roamed the great North American prairies. As many as 30 million of the great shaggy beasts moved seasonally in herds of 25 to 300, following the same patterns year after year. Bison, or buffalo, were the lifeblood of the…